We have explored the deposition of elemental metal films with TLE. So far we have succeeded in depositing films with thicknesses ranging from 1 to 500 nm on 2 inch Si wafers. All elemental sources could be evaporated in the same setup with growth rates between 0.01 and 1 Å/s by varying the laser power. Due to the inherent efficiency of the TLE process, significantly less power is required compared to high-temperature effusion cells and e-beam evaporators. A set of sample examples is shown below. The films are dense and homogeneous and have a very smooth surface morphology. These results show that laser evaporation is well-suited for the growth of complex compounds with excellent control.
An overview of the key scientific publications about thermal laser epitaxy.
2019-05 / AIP Advances 9 : Film deposition by thermal laser evaporation
2020-03 / APL Materials 8 : In situ thermal preparation of oxide surfaces
2021-02 / Journal of Laser Applications : Thermal laser evaporation of elements from across the periodic table
2021-08 / APL Materials 9: Thermal laser evaporation for the growth of oxide films
2021-08 / Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A 39: Epitaxial film growth by thermal laser evaporation